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The story of Daniel Boone is the story of America--its ideals, its promise, its romance, and its destiny. Bestselling, critically acclaimed author Robert Morgan reveals the complex character of a frontiersman whose heroic life was far stranger and more fascinating than the myths that surround him. This rich, authoritative biography offers a wholly new perspective on a man who has been an American icon for more than two hundred years--a hero as important to American history as his more political contemporaries George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Extensive endnotes, cultural and historical background material, and maps and illustrations underscore the scope of this distinguished and immensely entertaining work.
Mixing chronological narrative with a full ecological portrait, anthropologists Rountree and Davidson have reconstructed the culture and history of Virginia's and Maryland's Eastern Shore Indians from a.d. 800 until the last tribes disbanded in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Meet Naiche by Gabrielle Tayac; John Harrington (Photographer); Susan Secakuku
Publication Date: 2003-07-03
In this exciting new series, produced in association with the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian, readers of all ages will experience firsthand accounts of the daily lives of contemporary young Native Americans. Their stories are warmly illustrated with current and archival photographs and woven into the stories are details of tribal history and customs. Meet Naiche, a Native boy in Maryland, and spend some time with him at school and at home as he teaches us about the Piscataway people of the Chesapeake Bay area. Discover some places that are special to the Piscataway people, learn about Naiche's great-grandfather, and accompany Naiche and his family to an Awakening of Mother Earth ceremony.
How environmental forces, and human responses to them, profoundly shaped both Native American and colonial life along the Potomac River. James D. Rice's fresh study of the Potomac River basin begins with a mystery. Why, when the whole of the region offered fertile soil and excellent fishing and hunting, was nearly three-quarters of the land uninhabited on the eve of colonization? Rice wonders how the existence of this no man's land influenced nearby Native American and, later, colonial settlements. Did it function as a commons, as a place where all were free to hunt and fish? Or was it perceived as a strange and hostile wilderness? Rice discovers environmental factors at the center of the story. Making use of extensive archaeological and anthropological research, as well as the vast scholarship on farming practices in the colonial period, he traces the region's history from its earliest known habitation. With exceptionally vivid prose, Rice makes clear the implications of unbridled economic development for the forests, streams, and wetlands of the Potomac River basin. With what effects, Rice asks, did humankind exploit and then alter the landscape and the quality of the river's waters? Equal parts environmental, Native American, and colonial history, Nature and History in the Potomac Country is a useful and innovative study of the Potomac River, its valley, and its people.
Prominent Algonquian Tribes: the History of the Shawnee, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Chippewa, and Blackfeet by Charles River Charles River Editors
Publication Date: 2015-03-22
*Includes pictures*Includes accounts of the tribes written by contemporaries*Includes bibliographies for further reading*Includes a table of contentsThroughout the 19th century, American settlers pushing across the Western frontier came into contact with diverse American tribes, producing a series of conflicts ranging from the Great Plains to the Southwest, from the Trail of Tears to the Pacific Northwest. Indian leaders like Geronimo became feared and dreaded men in America, and Sitting Bull's victory over George Custer's 7th Cavalry at Little Bighorn was one of the nation's most traumatic military endeavors. Given this history, it's no surprise that the Shawnee continue to be closely associated with their most famous leader, Tecumseh, the most famous Native American of the early 19th century. While leading the Shawnee, he attempted to peacefully establish a Native American nation east of the Mississippi River in the wake of the American Revolution. One of the most famous Native American tribes on the Great Plains is the Cheyenne, and their fame may be surpassed only by their influence on American history. Having split off from other groups around the 16th-17th centuries, the Cheyenne shifted from a sedentary agricultural society to the kind of nomadic g.roup many envision when thinking of groups on the Plains. But it was land disputes and conflicts with white settlers and the Cheyenne that set in motion the chain of events that led to the most famous battle among Native Americans and the American government: the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Like other notable Plains tribes, the Arapaho split off from other groups around the 16th-17th centuries and shifted from a sedentary agricultural society to the kind of nomadic group many envision when thinking of groups on the Plains. That nomadic lifestyle brought them into contact with the Sioux and Cheyenne, both of whom became allies as white settlers pushed west and led to conflicts. The United States sought to defuse tensions with natives during the westward push by drafting treaties regarding major pieces of land, often without understanding the complex structure of the various tribes, and subgroups within those tribes. Most notably, the Arapaho were victims of the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864, an action considered so heinous that the leader of the attack, Colonel John Chivington, was actually relieved of command after it. Outside of the Midwest, the Chippewa are not as well-known as other Native American tribes like the Sioux or Cherokee, but they have long been one of the biggest groups in all of North America. Not surprisingly, their presence around the Great Lakes region made them especially important to early European explorers who sailed the St. Lawrence and came into contact with the natives as they continued searching for the Northwest Passage. The French in particular conducted substantial fur trading with the Chippewa, and it is thanks to the European explorers that the various groups have all been identified as Chippewa today. The territory of the Blackfeet, at its greatest extent, encompassed a vast area from the eastern Rocky Mountains of Alberta and Montana and extending several hundred miles out onto the Great Plains, around the upper reaches of the Saskatchewan River and its tributaries in Alberta and the upper reaches of the Missouri River and its tributaries in Montana. The area of the land most sacred to the Blackfeet is the Sweet Grass Hills, which are located just south of the Canadian border in the central part of Montana. These are a group of buttes forested with balsam firs rising several thousand feet above the surrounding plains and which can be seen for a considerable distance. This was also Napi's favorite resting place in the mythology of the Blackfeet. Young Blackfeet went up into the Hills on their vision quests and, as their predecessors had done for several thousands of years, left inscriptions and petroglyphs.
This book traces the footprints of the Lenape-Delaware Indians across the continent and centers on a culture which occupied a four state region of the Northeast. The initial written documentation describing their way of life was supplied by eleven seventeenth century observers from four nationalities. In the next century, religious missionaries recorded their changing society as it faced the tide of immigration flooding into their homelands. Without their written information, this book could never have been completed.
Ohio Indian Trails by Frank N. Wilcox; William A. McGill (Editor); Richard S. Grimes (Introduction by)
Publication Date: 2015-05-01
A facsimile edition of Wilcox's classic 1933 pictorial survey of the Indian trails of Ohio Shawnee, Miami, Delaware, Wyandot, Ottawa, Iroquois, and Mingo--tribes great and small, loosely confederated or warring with each other, pushed ever westward by the advancing white settlements--these were the native peoples of Ohio. They left behind little but their names, yet the trained eye can still discover the sites of their villages, the grounds where they fought, and the trails they used for trade, communication, war, and exodus. In this classic and coveted volume, artist Frank N. Wilcox tackles the difficult job of mapping the Indian trails of Ohio. Basing his work on the journals and records of early settlers and soldiers, his knowledge of Native American ways, and his intimacy with the Ohio landscape, he locates and documents the major Indian towns and trails that crisscross the state. His maps, drawings, and watercolors beautifully evoke the lives and cultures of Ohio's first peoples. A new introduction by historian Richard S. Grimes affirms Ohio Indian Trails' lasting contribution to our understanding of early Ohio.
The History Channel website recounts the massacre that occurred on on March 8, 1782. A group of Pennsylvania militiamen slaughtered some 90 unarmed Delaware and Mohican Native Americans at the Moravian mission settlement of Gnadenhutten, Ohio.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers was the culminating event that demonstrated the tenacity of the American people in their quest for western expansion and the struggle for dominance in the Old Northwest Territory. The events resulted in the dispossession of American Indian tribes and a loss of colonial territory for the British military and settlers.
A gripping narrative of one of the great survival stories of American history: the opening of the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Drawing on period letters and chronicles, and on the papers of the Virginia Company–which financed the settlement of Jamestown–David Price tells a tale of cowardice and courage, stupidity and brilliance, tragedy and costly triumph. He takes us into the day-to-day existence of the English men and women whose charge was to find gold and a route to the Orient, and who found, instead, hardship and wretched misery. Death, in fact, became the settlers’ most faithful companion, and their infighting was ceaseless. Price offers a rare balanced view of the relationship between the settlers and the natives. He unravels the crucial role of Pocahontas, a young woman whose reality has been obscured by centuries of legend and misinformation (and, more recently, animation). He paints indelible portraits of Chief Powhatan, the aged monarch who came close to ending the colony’s existence, and Captain John Smith, the former mercenary and slave, whose disdain for class distinctions infuriated many around him–even as his resourcefulness made him essential to the colony’s success. Love and Hate in Jamestownis a superb work of popular history, reminding us of the horrors and heroism that marked the dawning of our nation.
In this history, Helen C. Roundtree traces events that shaped the lives of the Powhatan Indians of Virginia, from their first encounter with English colonists, in 1607, to their present-day way of life and relationship to the state of Virginia and the federal government. Roundtree?s examination of those four hundred years misses not a beat in the pulse of Powhatan life. Combining meticulous scholarship and sensitivity, the author explores the diversity always found among Powhatan people, and those people?s relationships with the English, the government of the fledgling United States, the Union and the Confederacy, the U.S. Census Bureau, white supremacists, the U.S. Selective Service, and the civil rights movement.
Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough by Helen C. Rountree
Publication Date: 2005-04-13
Pocahontas may be the most famous Native American who ever lived, but during the settlement of Jamestown, and for two centuries afterward, the great chiefs Powhatan and Opechancanough were the subjects of considerably more interest and historical documentation than the young woman. It was Opechancanough who captured the foreign captain "Chawnzmit"--John Smith. Smith gave Opechancanough a compass, described to him a spherical earth that revolved around the sun, and wondered if his captor was a cannibal. Opechancanough, who was no cannibal and knew the world was flat, presented Smith to his elder brother, the paramount chief Powhatan. The chief, who took the name of his tribe as his throne name (his personal name was Wahunsenacawh), negotiated with Smith over a lavish feast and opened the town to him, leading Smith to meet, among others, Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas. Thinking he had made an ally, the chief finally released Smith. Within a few decades, and against their will, his people would be subjects of the British Crown. Despite their roles as senior politicians in these watershed events, no biography of either Powhatan or Opechancanough exists. And while there are other "biographies" of Pocahontas, they have for the most part elaborated on her legend more than they have addressed the known facts of her remarkable life. As the 400th anniversary of Jamestown's founding approaches, nationally renowned scholar of Native Americans, Helen Rountree, provides in a single book the definitive biographies of these three important figures. In their lives we see the whole arc of Indian experience with the English settlers - from the wary initial encounters presided over by Powhatan, to the uneasy diplomacy characterized by the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, to the warfare and eventual loss of native sovereignty that came during Opechancanough's reign. Writing from an ethnohistorical perspective that looks as much to anthropology as the written records, Rountree draws a rich portrait of Powhatan life in which the land and the seasons governed life and the English were seen not as heroes but as Tassantassas (strangers), as invaders, even as squatters. The Powhatans were a nonliterate people, so we have had to rely until now on the white settlers for our conceptions of the Jamestown experiment. This important book at last reconstructs the other side of the story.
Among the aspects of Powhatan life that Helen Rountree describes in vivid detail are hunting and agriculture, territorial claims, warfare and treatment of prisoners, physical appearance and dress, construction of houses and towns, education of youths, initiation rites, family and social structure and customs, the nature of rulers, medicine, religion, and even village games, music, and dance. Rountree?s is the first book-length treatment of this fascinating culture, which included one of the most complex political organizations in native North American and which figured prominently in early American history.
Southern Anthropological Society James Mooney Award "A well-written, fresh, and engaging interpretation of two millennia of Virginia Algonquian landscape history, presenting new data and new ideas--a must read."--Stephen Potter, author of Commoners, Tribute, and Chiefs: The Development of Algonquian Culture in the Potomac Valley "Theoretically innovative, richly empirical, and superbly written, this book demonstrates the potential for combining 'new' finds in the field with reconsiderations of 'old' sites and collections, and it makes a compelling case for an archaeology that involves Native American perspectives and participation."--Christopher B. Rodning, coeditor of Fort San Juan and the Limits of Empire: Colonialism and Household Practice at the Berry Site As Native American history is primarily studied through the lens of European contact, the story of Virginia's Powhatans has traditionally focused on the English arrival in the Chesapeake. This has left a deeper indigenous history largely unexplored--a longer narrative beginning with the Algonquians' construction of places, communities, and the connections in between. The Powhatan Landscape breaks new ground by tracing Native placemaking in the Chesapeake from the Algonquian arrival to the Powhatan's clashes with the English. Martin Gallivan details how Virginia Algonquians constructed riverine communities alongside fishing grounds and collective burials and later within horticultural towns. Ceremonial spaces, including earthwork enclosures within the center place of Werowocomoco, gathered people for centuries prior to 1607. Even after the violent ruptures of the colonial era, Native people returned to riverine towns for pilgrimages commemorating the enduring power of place. For today's American Indian communities in the Chesapeake, this reexamination of landscape and history represents a powerful basis from which to contest narratives and policies that have previously denied their existence. A volume in the series Society and Ecology in Island and Coastal Archaeology, edited by Victor D. Thompson
Ethan Brown is a citizen of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe. The Pamunkey Indian Tribe is a federally recognized tribe in the United States, and the Pamunkey Indian Reservation is one of the two oldest reservations in the country.
Ethan is an artist who creates contemporary art in many different forms and mediums, including gourd art, wood sculpting, oil painting, pottery, and filmmaking.
Below, Ethan discusses his gourd artwork in his own words. He describes three of his gourds, each of them telling a different story about Powhatan culture and life at different times throughout history.
Official website of the Pamunkey Indians who were the largest tribe within the powerful Powhatan Chiefdom when the English arrived to settle Jamestown in 1607. The website features their history, museum exhibits, and current news.
More than 400 years before English settlers established Jamestown, Werowocomoco had been an important Powhatan Indian town. Werowocomoco, translated from the Virginia Algonquian language, means “place of leadership”. As an archaeological site, Werowocomoco was confirmed in 2002, nearly 400 years after the Indian leader paramount chief Powhatan and his people interacted with Jamestown settlers here and at Jamestown.